Apple Central Leader

Apple Central Leader


This manual has been written for those who:

  • plan to plant a new orchard
  • must take care of young apple trees and manage a high density orchard
  • nurserymen who grow the trees
  • in any way are concerned with the establishment, management and performance of high density apple trees.


List of topics in this manual:

  • Row spacings & tree heights
  • Tree spacing and densities
  • Which rootstock - Dwarfing, semi-vigorous, vigorous?
  • Nursery trees - the ideal tree
  • Scion rooting of apples
  • Tree growth habit
  • Different pruning cuts
    • Heading cut - spring vs winter
    • Thinning cut
    • Delay heading
    • Bench cut
    • Clean cut
    • December cut
    • Ring cut
  • After planting
  • When buds move in spring
  • When you can not plant feathered trees
  • Manage trees in the first season
    • feathered trees
    • Rods/whips
  • Second year
    • tree growth and management
  • Third year
    • prepare for ongoing productivity
  • Fourth year - trees should have filled their alloted space
  • Renewal pruning
  • Summer pruning for skin colour
  • How to minimise sunburnt fruit
  • Hail net UPDATED 
    • positives and negatives
    • bee activity
    • type of net, structure, shape
    • colour
  • What causes biennial bearing
  • Root pruning
  • Crown Gall
  • What are burr knots
  • Calcium in the soil, tree and fruit
  • What is watercore?
  • Tree nutrition
  • A guide to replace the nutrient losses from harvested fruit
  • Nitrogen applications
  • How useful is a soil test
  • Soil organic matter
    • why is it important
    • supply of nutrients
  • Use winter weeds to improve your soil
  • Weed mulch + gypsum
  • Six steps to prepare soil before planting
  • Winter chill for breaking dormancy - chilling requirement
  • Balancing growth and cropping

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